Water is the world's most precious resource, yet it is also the one which is almost universally mismanaged. As a result, water shortages are becoming ever more common. In the case of water supply and distribution networks, these manifest themselves in the intermittent operation of the system. Not only is this detrimental to the structural condition of the pipes, but can also adversely affect the quality of the water delivered to the customer's taps. Further, leakage often exceeds 50% of the production. Not only does this have a significant economic impact, but an environmental one too. But to recover leakage has a cost to undertake a hydraulic study of the network, create a permanent monitoring system, and eliminate the leaks. So how low should leakage go and how can a lower leakage level be maintained over time? This is the objective of the very innovative EU funded PALM project recently completed in central Italy.